Ocular and periocular injuries associated with an isolated orbital fracture depending on a blunt cranial trauma: anatomical and surgical aspects.

Research paper by H Selim HS Karabekir, Nuket N Gocmen-Mas, Erhan E Emel, Umit U Karacayli, Ramazan R Koymen, Elmas Kagnici EK Atar, Nezih N Ozkan

Indexed on: 19 Nov '11Published on: 19 Nov '11Published in: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery


The anatomical location of fractures following blunt cranio-orbital trauma is important for neurosurgeons and maxillofacial surgeons. In this study, 588 cranio-orbital fractures following blunt trauma were evaluated retrospectively with regard to the anatomical site and surgical treatment. Orbital cranial nerve injuries and the outcomes of the medical and/or surgical treatment are described. Distribution of the zygomatic complex and orbital fractures were as follows: zygomatic complex fractures (n:304), isolated orbital fractures (n:58), complex comminuted fractures (n:226). In 58 cases, 69 orbit fractures were found (11 bilateral and 47 unilateral fractures). The lateral wall was the most frequent fracture (n:63). The least frequent fracture was the roof of the orbit (n:11). The accompanying lesions were as follows: 89.65% of cases were associated with periorbital haematoma (n:52), 13.79% of cases with retrobulbar haemorrhage (n:8), 96.55% cases with periorbital soft tissue oedema (n:56), 53.45% cases with pneumocephalus (n:31), 8.62% cases with intra-parenchymal contusion (n:5), 6.89% cases with enophthalmia (n:4), 5.17% of cases with rhinorrhoea (n: 3), 5.17% cases with optic bulb injury and adnexial trauma (n:3), 32.76% cases with intra-orbital emphysema (n:19), and 20.69% with vision dysfunctions (n:12), of whom 2 had no optic nerve injury.