Indexed on: 03 Apr '08Published on: 03 Apr '08Published in: Chemistry - A European Journal
Conjugate additions of nucleophiles (e.g. enolates, amines and malonate anions) to bis(p-tolylsulfinyl)alkenes, alkylidene-1,3-dithiane-1,3-dioxides and alkylidene-1,3-dithiolane-1,3-dioxides have recently been published. Reasons for different selectivities and reaction rates will be discussed by consideration of steric and electronic effects. The preferred mode of attack can be explained by stereoelectronic effects (hyperconjugation) in the primarily carbanion, which is stabilized by n-->S-O-sigma* interaction with an antiperiplanar S=O group. Calculation of the transition states [BP86/aug-TZVP] for the addition of acetone enolate to the dithiane-derived alkylidene bis(sulfoxide) revealed that 6.6-7.3 kJ mol(-1) more energy is needed for an attack leading to a less-stabilized carbanion. Two axial S=O groups in dithiolane-derived alkylidene bis(sulfoxides) lead to a higher reactivity towards nucleophiles.