Indexed on: 29 Oct '14Published on: 29 Oct '14Published in: Journal of Natural Medicines
Two novel urushiols, 1 and 2, and two known urushiols, 3 and 4, were isolated from the leaves of Rhus verniciflua and were examined for their human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activity. The novel urushiols were found to be 1,2-dihydroxyphenyl-3-[7'(E),9'(Z),11'(Z)-pentadecatrienyl]-14'-ol (1) and 1,2-dihydroxyphenyl-3-[8'(Z),10'(E),12'(E)-pentadecatrienyl]-14'-ol (2) by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration at C-14' in 1 and 2 was determined to be a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) isomers by ozonolysis. Compound 2 (IC50: 12.6 µM) showed the highest HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity among the four urushiols, being 2.5-fold more potent than the positive control, adriamycin (IC50: 31.9 µM). Although the known urushiols were isolated from the sap and leaves of R. verniciflua, 1 was exclusively present in the leaves, and higher amounts of 2 were found in the leaves than in the sap. Present findings indicate that the leaves of R. verniciflua represent a new biological resource from which novel and known urushiols may be prepared, and the possible use of novel urushiols as bioactive products.