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Novel Influences of IL-10 on CNS Inflammation Revealed by Integrated Analyses of Cytokine Networks and Microglial Morphology.

Research paper by Warren D WD Anderson, Andrew D AD Greenhalgh, Aditya A Takwale, Samuel S David, Rajanikanth R Vadigepalli

Indexed on: 01 Sep '17Published on: 01 Sep '17Published in: Frontiers in cellular neuroscience



Abstract

Coordinated interactions between cytokine signaling and morphological dynamics of microglial cells regulate neuroinflammation in CNS injury and disease. We found that pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in vivo showed a pronounced recovery following systemic LPS. We performed a novel multivariate analysis of microglial morphology and identified changes in specific morphological properties of microglia that matched the expression dynamics of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. The adaptive recovery kinetics of TNFα expression and microglial soma size showed comparable profiles and dependence on anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression. The recovery of cytokine variations and microglial morphology responses to inflammation were negatively regulated by IL-10. Our novel morphological analysis of microglia is able to detect subtle changes and can be used widely. We implemented in silico simulations of cytokine network dynamics which showed-counter-intuitively, but in line with our experimental observations-that negative feedback from IL-10 was sufficient to impede the adaptive recovery of TNFα-mediated inflammation. Our integrative approach is a powerful tool to study changes in specific components of microglial morphology for insights into their functional states, in relation to cytokine network dynamics, during CNS injury and disease.