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Nonconvulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury are associated with hippocampal atrophy.

Research paper by P M PM Vespa, D L DL McArthur, Y Y Xu, M M Eliseo, M M Etchepare, I I Dinov, J J Alger, T P TP Glenn, D D Hovda

Indexed on: 02 Sep '10Published on: 02 Sep '10Published in: Neurology



Abstract

To determine if posttraumatic nonconvulsive electrographic seizures result in long-term brain atrophy.Prospective continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring was done in 140 patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and in-depth study of 16 selected patients was done using serial volumetric MRI acutely and at 6 months after TBI. Fluorodeoxyglucose PET was done in the acute stage in 14/16 patients. These data were retrospectively analyzed after collection of data for 7 years.cEEG detected seizures in 32/140 (23%) of the entire cohort. In the selected imaging subgroup, 6 patients with seizures were compared with a cohort of 10 age- and GCS-matched patients with TBI without seizures. In this subgroup, the seizures were repetitive and constituted status epilepticus in 4/6 patients. Patients with seizures had greater hippocampal atrophy as compared to those without seizures (21 +/- 9 vs 12 +/- 6%, p = 0.017). Hippocampi ipsilateral to the electrographic seizure focus demonstrated a greater degree of volumetric atrophy as compared with nonseizure hippocampi (28 +/- 5 vs 13 +/- 9%, p = 0.007). A single patient had an ictal PET scan which demonstrated increased hippocampal glucose uptake.Acute posttraumatic nonconvulsive seizures occur frequently after TBI and, in a selected subgroup, appear to be associated with disproportionate long-term hippocampal atrophy. These data suggest anatomic damage is potentially elicited by nonconvulsive seizures in the acute postinjury setting.