Indexed on: 25 Jan '17Published on: 25 Jan '17Published in: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Commercial mushroom growth on substrate material produces a heterogeneous waste that can be used for bioenergy purposes. Hyperspectral imaging in the near-infrared (NHI) was used to experimentally study a number of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) packed samples under different conditions (wet vs. dry, open vs. plastic covering, and round or cuboid) and to explore the possibilities of direct characterization of the fresh substrate within a plastic bag. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to remove the background of images, explore the important studied factors, and identify SMS and mycelia (Myc) based on the pixel clusters within the score plot. Overview PCA modeling indicated high moisture content caused the most significant effects on spectra followed by the uneven distribution of Myc and the plastic cover. There were well-separated pixel clusters for SMS and Myc under different conditions: dry, wet, or wet and plastic covering. The loading peaks of the related component and the second derivative of the mean spectra of pixel clusters of SMS and Myc indicated that there are chemical differences between SMS and Myc. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were calculated and classification of SMS and Myc was successful, whether the materials were dry or wet. Peak shifts because of high moisture content and unexpected peaks from the plastic covering were found. Although the best results were obtained for dried cylinders, it was shown that almost equally good results could be obtained for the wet material and for the wet material covered by plastic. Furthermore, PLS-DA prediction showed that a side face hyperspectral image could represent the information for the entire SMS cylinder when Myc was removed. Thus, the combination of NHI and multivariate image analysis has great potential to develop calibration models to directly predict the contents of water, carbohydrates, lignin, and protein in wet and plastic-covered SMS cylinders.