Indexed on: 01 May '02Published on: 01 May '02Published in: Applied Physics A
We have performed measurements on the gettering efficiencies for Ni in different silicon wafers. Gettering efficiencies were measured of wafers grown by different crystal-growth techniques, such as Czochralski-grown (CZ) and floating zone (FZ), as well as wafers containing crystal-originated particles (COPs) of different size and density. Lightly boron doped CZ wafers covered with an epitaxial layer were also evaluated. In another set of experiments, we compared different back-side-gettering techniques, like poly-silicon, stacking faults and He-implanted back sides and the dependence of back-side gettering on cooling rate and contamination level. Internal surfaces of oxygen precipitates were also investigated. The gettering test started with a reproducible spin-on contamination in the range around 1012 atoms/cm2 and was followed by a thermal treatment to redistribute the Ni impurity in the wafer. Subsequently, wafers were analyzed for their surface and bulk contamination by a novel layer-by-layer etching, stratigraphical technique in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No detectable gettering effect of COPs was found. FZ wafers differed remarkably in their gettering behavior from CZ wafers, obviously due to differences in aggregated self-point defects. Most remarkably, the deposition process of an epitaxial layer changed the gettering behavior of p/p- wafers. Comparing the gettering efficiencies of different back sides, an extraordinarily high gettering efficiency of He-implanted voids can be anticipated, which was higher than the gettering efficiency of poly-silicon and stacking faults. High cooling rates at the end of the drive-in cycle and low contamination levels lowered the gettering efficiencies of back-side-gettering techniques, suggesting a diffusion-limited gettering process. Based on the dependence of the gettering efficiencies on different drive-in cycles, a surface reaction as a mechanistic initiation of the drive-in must be assumed. Oxygen precipitates exhibited a high gettering effect for Ni contamination. All experimental results are interpreted by available active surfaces in the gettering phases.