# Nested recursions with ceiling function solutions

Research paper by **Abraham Isgur, Vitaly Kuznetsov, Stephen M. Tanny**

Indexed on: **30 Apr '12**Published on: **30 Apr '12**Published in: **Mathematics - Combinatorics**

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#### Abstract

Consider a nested, non-homogeneous recursion R(n) defined by R(n) =
\sum_{i=1}^k R(n-s_i-\sum_{j=1}^{p_i} R(n-a_ij)) + nu, with c initial
conditions R(1) = xi_1 > 0,R(2)=xi_2 > 0, ..., R(c)=xi_c > 0, where the
parameters are integers satisfying k > 0, p_i > 0 and a_ij > 0. We develop an
algorithm to answer the following question: for an arbitrary rational number
r/q, is there any set of values for k, p_i, s_i, a_ij and nu such that the
ceiling function ceiling{rn/q} is the unique solution generated by R(n) with
appropriate initial conditions? We apply this algorithm to explore those
ceiling functions that appear as solutions to R(n). The pattern that emerges
from this empirical investigation leads us to the following general result:
every ceiling function of the form ceiling{n/q}$ is the solution of infinitely
many such recursions. Further, the empirical evidence suggests that the
converse conjecture is true: if ceiling{rn/q} is the solution generated by any
recursion R(n) of the form above, then r=1. We also use our ceiling function
methodology to derive the first known connection between the recursion R(n) and
a natural generalization of Conway's recursion.