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NADPH oxidase 4 is involved in the triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in human embryonic palatal mesenchymal and dental pulp cells.

Research paper by Cheng-Chang CC Yeh, Jenny Zwei-Chieng JZ Chang, Wan-Hsien WH Yang, Hao-Hueng HH Chang, Eddie Hsiang-Hua EH Lai, Mark Yen-Ping MY Kuo

Indexed on: 04 Dec '14Published on: 04 Dec '14Published in: Clinical Oral Investigations



Abstract

Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is a common component of resin-based dental composites and endodontic sealers. TEGDMA induces apoptosis in several types of cells. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying TEGDMA-induced apoptosis in human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) pre-osteoblasts and primary human dental pulp (HDP) cells.Cell viability was examined after TEGDMA treatment. Cell cycle progression was checked by flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells were evaluated using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analyses were performed to determine expressions of apoptosis-related proteins. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using flow cytometry. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression levels were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses.TEGDMA increased cytosol cytochrome c levels and activated caspase-9 in HEPM and HDP cells. TEGDMA decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. TEGDMA-induced apoptosis was inhibited by caspase-9-specific inhibitor, anti-oxidants, NOX inhibitor, NOX4 inhibitor, and NOX4 small interfering RNA (siRNA). TEGDMA increased ROS production and upregulated NOX4 mRNA and protein expression. TEGDMA-induced intracellular ROS production was inhibited by NOX inhibitor and NOX4 inhibitor.We demonstrate significant involvement of NOX4 in the TEGDMA-induced ROS. NOX4-derived ROS subsequently induces mitochondrial cytochrome c release leading to apoptosis through activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.NOX4 may be a potential target for strategies to prevent or ameliorate the TEGDMA-induced toxicity in HEPM and HDP cells.