Indexed on: 28 Jun '14Published on: 28 Jun '14Published in: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
To investigate the association between serum vitamin D levels and myopia in young adults.A total of 946 individuals participating in the 20-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were included in this study. Ethnicity, parental myopia, and education status were ascertained by self-reported questionnaire. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination was performed, including postcycloplegic autorefraction and conjunctival UV autofluorescence photography. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25(OH)D₃) concentrations were determined using mass spectrometry. The association between serum 25(OH)D₃ concentrations and prevalent myopia was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Myopia was defined as mean spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopters.Of the 946 participants, 221 (23.4%) had myopia (n = 725 nonmyopic). Myopic subjects had lower serum 25(OH)D₃ concentrations compared to nonmyopic participants (median 67.6 vs. 72.5 nmol, P = 0.003). In univariable analysis, lower serum 25(OH)D₃ concentration was associated with higher risk of having myopia (odds ratio [OR] for <50 vs. ≥50 nmol/L: 2.63; confidence interval [95% CI] 1.71-4.05; P < 0.001). This association persisted after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, ethnicity, parental myopia, education status, and ocular sun-exposure biomarker score (adjusted OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.29-3.32; P = 0.002).Myopic participants had significantly lower 25(OH)D₃ concentrations. The prevalence of myopia was significantly higher in individuals with vitamin D deficiency compared to the individuals with sufficient levels. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate whether higher serum 25(OH)D₃ concentration is protective against myopia or whether it is acting as a proxy for some other biologically effective consequence of sun exposure.