Chui-Ping Yang, Shi-Biao Zheng, Franco Nori


We propose how to realize a multiqubit tunable phase gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling $n$ qubits with four-level quantum systems in a cavity or coupled to a resonator. Each of the $n$ two-qubit controlled-phase (CP) gates involved in this multiqubit phase gate has a shared control qubit but a {\it different} target qubit. In this propose, the two lowest levels of each system represent the two logical states of a qubit while the two higher-energy intermediate levels are used for the gate implementation. The method presented here operates essentially by creating a single photon through the control qubit, which then induces a phase shift to the state of each target qubit. The phase shifts on each target qubit can be adjusted by changing the Rabi frequencies of the pulses applied to the target qubit systems. The operation time for the gate implementation is independent of the number of qubits, and neither adjustment of the qubit level spacings nor adjustment of the cavity mode frequency during the gate operation is required by this proposal. It is also noted that this approach can be applied to implement certain types of significant multiqubit phase gates, e.g., the multiqubit phase gate consisting of $n$ two-qubit CP gates which are key elements in quantum Fourier transforms. A possible physical implementation of our approach is presented. Our proposal is quite general, and can be applied to physical systems such as various types of superconducting devices coupled to a resonator and trapped atoms in a cavity.