Indexed on: 16 Sep '08Published on: 16 Sep '08Published in: Journal of Separation Science
A comprehensive 2-D LC x LC system was developed for the separation of phenolic and flavone antioxidants, using a PEG-silica column in the first dimension and a C(18) column with porous-shell particles or a monolithic column in the second dimension. Combination of PEG and C18 or C8 stationary phase chemistries provide low selectivity correlations between the first dimension and the second dimension separation systems. This was evidenced by large differences in structural contributions to the retention by -COOH, -OH and other substituents on the basic phenol or flavone structure. Superficially porous columns with fused core particles or monolithic columns improve the resolution and speed of second dimension separation in comparison to a fully porous particle C(18) column. Increased peak capacity and high orthogonality in different 2-D setups was achieved by using gradients with matching profiles running in parallel in the two dimensions over the whole 2-D separation time range. Multi-dimensional set-up combining the LC x LC separation on-line with UV and multi-channel coulometric detection and off-line with MS/MS technique allowed positive peak identification. The Coularray software compensates for the effects of the baseline drift during the gradient elution and is compatible with parallel gradient comprehensive LC x LC technique. Furthermore, it provides significant improvement in the sensitivity and selectivity of detection in comparison to both UV and MS detection. The utility of these systems has been demonstrated in the analysis of beer samples.