Morphology of the physiological foramen: I. Maxillary and mandibular molars.

Research paper by Benjamín Briseño BB Marroquín, Mohammed A A MA El-Sayed, Brita B Willershausen-Zönnchen

Indexed on: 27 Apr '04Published on: 27 Apr '04Published in: Journal of Endodontics


Information concerning the anatomy of the physiological foramen is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the distance between the physiological and anatomical apex, accessory foramina frequency, and the shape and diameter of the physiological foramen in maxillary and mandibular molars. The apical anatomy of 523 maxillary and 574 mandibular molars from an Egyptian population was investigated by means of a computer-aided stereomicroscope (40 x magnification). The following results were obtained: