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Morbidity, mortality, cost, and survival estimates of gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks.

Research paper by Florence E FE Turrentine, Chaderick E CE Denlinger, Virginia B VB Simpson, Robert A RA Garwood, Stephanie S Guerlain, Abhinav A Agrawal, Charles M CM Friel, Damien J DJ LaPar, George J GJ Stukenborg, R Scott RS Jones

Indexed on: 17 Jan '15Published on: 17 Jan '15Published in: Journal of The American College of Surgeons



Abstract

Anastomotic leak, a potentially deadly postoperative occurrence, particularly interests surgeons performing gastrointestinal procedures. We investigated incidence, cost, and impact on survival of anastomotic leak in gastrointestinal surgical procedures at an academic center.We conducted a chart review of American College of Surgeons NSQIP operative procedures with gastrointestinal anastomosis from January 1, 2003 through April 30, 2006. Each case with an American College of Surgeons NSQIP 30-day postoperative complication was systematically reviewed for evidence of anastomotic leak for 12 months after the operative date. We tracked patients for up to 10 years to determine survival. Morbidity, mortality, and cost for patients with gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks were compared with patients with anastomoses that remained intact.Unadjusted analyses revealed significant differences between patients who had anastomotic leaks develop and those who did not: morbidity (98.0% vs. 28.4%; p < 0.0001), length of stay (13 vs. 5 days; p ≤ 0.0001), 30-day mortality (8.4% vs. 2.5%; p < 0.0001), long-term mortality (36.4% vs. 20.0%; p ≤ 0.0001), and hospital costs (chi-square [2] = 359.8; p < 0.0001). Multivariable regression demonstrated that anastomotic leak was associated with congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR] = 31.5; 95% CI, 2.6-381.4; p = 0.007), peripheral vascular disease (OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.0-20.5; p = 0.048), alcohol abuse (OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.3; p = 0.002), steroid use (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-5.0; p = 0.027), abnormal sodium (OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7; p = 0.002), weight loss (OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.7; p = 0.011), and location of anastomosis: rectum (OR = 14.0; 95% CI, 2.6-75.5; p = 0.002), esophagus (OR = 13.0; 95% CI, 3.6-46.2; p < 0.0001), pancreas (OR = 12.4; 95% CI, 3.3-46.2; p < 0.0001), small intestine (OR = 6.9; 95% CI, 1.8-26.4; p = 0.005), and colon (OR = 5.2; 95% CI, 1.5-17.7; p = 0.009).Significant morbidity, mortality, and cost accompany gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks. Patients who experience an anastomotic leak have lower rates of survival at 30 days and long term.