Indexed on: 05 Dec '18Published on: 05 Dec '18Published in: Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
To systematically review the literature on anti-inflammatory medications for treating pediatric obstructive sleep apnea and perform meta-analysis of the available data. PubMed/MEDLINE and 4 additional databases. Three authors independently and systematically searched through June 28, 2018, for studies that assessed anti-inflammatory therapy for treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data were compiled and analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 (Nordic Cochrane Centre). After screening 135 studies, 32 were selected for review with 6 meeting inclusion criteria. In total, 668 patients aged 2 to 5 years met inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Of these, 5 studies (166 children) that evaluated montelukast alone as treatment for pediatric OSA found a 55% improvement in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (mean [SD] 6.2 [3.1] events/h pretreatment and 2.8 [2.7] events/h posttreatment; mean difference [MD] of -2.7 events/h; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.6 to 0.3) with improvement in lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) from 89.5 (6.9) to 92.1 (3.6) (MD, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.5-4.0). Two studies (502 children) observing the effects of montelukast with intranasal corticosteroids on pediatric OSA found a 70% improvement in AHI (4.7 [2.1] events/h pretreatment and 1.4 [1.0] events/h posttreatment; MD of -4.2 events/h; 95% CI, -6.3 to -2.0), with an improvement in LSAT from 87.8 (3.1) to 92.6 (2.2) (MD, 4.8; 95% CI, 4.5-5.1). Treatment with montelukast and intranasal steroids or montelukast alone is potentially beneficial for short-term management of mild pediatric OSA.