Indexed on: 16 Jan '21Published on: 02 Jan '21Published in: World journal of gastroenterology
Cholestasis is a clinical condition resulting from the imapairment of bile flow. This condition could be caused by defects of the hepatocytes, which are responsible for the complex process of bile formation and secretion, and/or caused by defects in the secretory machinery of cholangiocytes. Several mutations and pathways that lead to cholestasis have been described. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a group of rare diseases caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the genes that encode proteins expressed mainly in the apical membrane of the hepatocytes. PFIC 1, also known as Byler's disease, is caused by mutations of the gene, which encodes the familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 protein. PFIC 2 is characterized by the downregulation or absence of functional bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression variations in the gene. Mutations of the gene result in lower expression of the multidrug resistance class 3 glycoprotein, leading to the third type of PFIC. Newer variations of this disease have been described. Loss of function of the tight junction protein 2 protein results in PFIC 4, while mutations of the gene, which encodes farnesoid X receptor, an important transcription factor for bile formation, cause PFIC 5. A recently described type of PFIC is associated with a mutation in the gene, important for the trafficking of BSEP and hepatocyte membrane polarization. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the molecular mechanisms and clinical features associated with each type of PFIC based on peer reviewed journals published between 1993 and 2020. ©The Author(s) 2020. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.