Molecular gas and star formation towards the IR dust bubble S24 and its environs

Research paper by C. E. Cappa, N. U. Duronea, V. Firpo, J. Vasquez, C. H. López-Caraballo, M. Rubio, M. M. Vazzano

Indexed on: 11 Sep '15Published on: 11 Sep '15Published in: arXiv - Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies


We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the infrared dust bubble S24, and its environs, with the aim of investigating the characteristics of the molecular gas and the interstellar dust linked to them, and analyzing the evolutionary status of the young stellar objects (YSOs) identified there. Using APEX data, we mapped the molecular emission in the CO(2-1), $^{13}$CO(2-1), C$^{18}$O(2-1), and $^{13}$CO(3-2) lines in a region of about 5'x 5' in size around the bubble. The cold dust distribution was analyzed using ATLASGAL and Herschel images. Complementary IR and radio data were also used.The molecular gas linked to the S24 bubble, G341.220-0.213, and G341.217-0.237 has velocities between -48.0 km sec$^{-1}$ and -40.0 km sec$^{-1}$. The gas distribution reveals a shell-like molecular structure of $\sim$0.8 pc in radius bordering the bubble. A cold dust counterpart of the shell is detected in the LABOCA and Herschel images.The presence of extended emission at 24 $\mu$m and radio continuum emission inside the bubble indicates that the bubble is a compact HII region. Part of the molecular gas bordering S24 coincides with the extended infrared dust cloud SDC341.194-0.221. A cold molecular clump is present at the interface between S24 and G341.217-0.237. As regards G341.220-0.213, the presence of an arc-like molecular structure at the northern and eastern sections of this IR source indicates that G341.220-0.213 is interacting with the molecular gas. Several YSO candidates are found to be linked to the IR extended sources, thus confirming their nature as active star-forming regions. The total gas mass in the region and the H$_2$ ambient density amount to 10300 M$_{\odot}$ and 5900 cm$^{-3}$, indicating that G341.220-0.213, G341.217-0.237, and the S24 HII region are evolving in a high density medium. A triggering star formation scenario is also investigated.