Indexed on: 12 Aug '20Published on: 12 Aug '20Published in: Angewandte Chemie International Edition
The development of fluorophores for the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000 - 1700 nm) represents a newly emerging, significant and vibrant field in analytic chemistry, chemical biology and biomedical engineering. The wavelength, brightness, and stability are three crucial factors that determine the performance of a NIR-II fluorophore. Up to now, significant progress has been made in the development of NIR-II fluorescence molecular probes, including the synthesis of D-A-D and D-π-A fluorophores with improved NIR-II fluorescence imaging performance and the construction of the off-on probe and ratiometric probe via energy transfer or molecular structure modification. In this Review, we summarize the most recent advances in molecular engineering design strategies of NIR-II fluorophores and probes, then highlight a selection of bioimaging and biosensing applications. We also provide perspectives on potential challenges and opportunities in this emerging field. © 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH.