Molecular diversity of restriction enzyme sites, Indels and upstream open reading frames (uORFs) of 5′ untransalted regions (UTRs) of Waxy genes in Triticum L. and Aegilops L. species

Research paper by Wei Li, Zhen Gao, Wei Xiao, Yu-Ming Wei, Ya-Xi Liu, Guo-Yue Chen, Zhi-En Pu, Hua-Ping Chen, You-Liang Zheng

Indexed on: 28 Jan '12Published on: 28 Jan '12Published in: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution


5′ Untransalted regions (UTR) sequences of Waxy genes were amplified from all 81 Triticum L. and Aegilops L. species by PCR with specific primers. It was found that the sequence length at 7D loci was longer than that 7B and 7A. These sequences contained 170 singleton variable sites and 484 polymorphic sites and that the average length of Indels was 8.5 bp. There were abundant regions of restriction enzyme sites and two regions of simple sequence repeat, “GAA” and “CTGA”, in all sequences. A total of 65 uORFs were detected and classed into 37 types, with the variation in uORFs mainly due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and also to the presence of Indels. All sequences in tetraploids and hexaploids could be grouped into Types A, B, I, II, GI and GII based on sequence variation. Restriction enzyme sites, Indel polymorphisms and the classes of uORFs present together indicated that Type I was more similar to Ae. tauschii whereas Type II was more similar to Type B, and both more similar to Ae. longissima; Type A was more similar to Ae. speltoides. Population analysis was performed and Neighbour-joining trees derived from different species, types and accessions further confirmed that the ancestors of T. urartu, Ae. speltoides, Ae. longissima and Ae. tauschii were involved to the evolution of common wheat, and also implied that Ae. longissima might have participated later than Ae. speltoides. 5′ UTRs of Waxy genes in tetraploid and hexaploid species conserved characters from their respective progenitors when compared with diploid. For the first time, we are able to conclude there is abundant variation in SNPs, Indels and uORFs between 5′ UTRs of Waxy genes from different species related to common wheat, and suggest that further research could help to understand Waxy gene function more deeply and hence improve wheat breeding. Our results also show that three hexaploid species in China have unique diversity in the 5′ UTR of their Waxy gene.