Indexed on: 30 Jun '06Published on: 30 Jun '06Published in: American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
Brain cells are highly energy dependent for maintaining ion homeostasis during high metabolic activity. During active periods, full mitochondrial function is essential to generate ATP from electrons that originate with the oxidation of NADH. Decreasing brain metabolism is a significant cause of cognitive abnormalities of Alzheimer disease (AD), but it remains uncertain whether this is the cause of further pathology or whether synaptic loss results in a lower energy demand. Synapses are the first to show pathological symptoms in AD before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because synaptic function has high energy demands, interruption in mitochondrial energy supply could be the major factor in synaptic failure in AD. A newly discovered age-related decline in neuronal NADH and redox ratio may jeopardize this function. Mitochondrial dehydrogenases and several mutations affecting energy transfer are frequently altered in aging and AD. Thus, with the accumulation of genetic defects in mitochondria at the level of energy transfer, the issue of neuronal susceptibility to damage as a function of age and age-related disease becomes important. In an aging rat neuron model, mitochondria are both chronically depolarized and produce more reactive oxygen species with age. These concepts suggest that multiple treatment targets may be needed to reverse this multifactorial disease. This review summarizes new insights based on the interaction of mitoenergetic failure, glutamate excitotoxicity, and amyloid toxicity in the exacerbation of AD.