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Mitochondrial biogenesis mediated by melatonin in an APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice model.

Research paper by ChaoYuan C Song, MaoYu M Li, LinLin L Xu, Yang Y Shen, Hui H Yang, Mao M Ding, XiangTian X Liu, ZhaoHong Z Xie

Indexed on: 12 Oct '18Published on: 12 Oct '18Published in: Neuroreport



Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease, but the pathogenesis is unclear. Damaged mitochondrial biogenesis has been observed in AD. Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, but the exact mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used the amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutations K594N/M595L (APPswe)/presenilin 1 with the exon-9 deletion (PS1dE9) transgenic mouse model of AD, which was successfully established by the expression of amyloid β precursor protein and presenilin 1 (PS1). Then, we compared APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice with and without melatonin (MT) in drinking water for 4 months (estimated 0.5 mg/day) and control C57BL/6J mice without MT for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors (mitochondrial transcription factor A, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α), mitochondrial structure, mitochondrial DNA to nuclear DNA ratio, behavioral changes, and amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and soluble Aβ levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Compared with controls, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice with long-term MT intake showed increased levels of mitochondrial biogenesis factors, alleviated mitochondrial impairment, enhanced mitochondrial DNA copy number, improved spatial learning and memory deficits, and reduced Aβ deposition and soluble Aβ levels. Defective mitochondrial biogenesis may contribute toward the damaged mitochondrial structure and function in AD. MT may alleviate AD by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.