Indexed on: 11 Apr '01Published on: 11 Apr '01Published in: The EMBO Journal
Recently we showed that partial depletion of mitochondrial DNA (genetic stress) or treatment with mitochondrial-specific inhibitors (metabolic stress) induced a stress signaling that was associated with increased cytoplasmic-free Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)](c). In the present study we show that the mitochondria-to-nucleus stress signaling induces invasive phenotypes in otherwise non-invasive C2C12 myoblasts and human pulmonary carcinoma A549 cells. Tumor-specific markers cathepsin L and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) are overexpressed in cells subjected to mitochondrial genetic as well as metabolic stress. C2C12 myoblasts subjected to stress showed 4- to 6-fold higher invasion through reconstituted Matrigel membrane as well as rat tracheal xenotransplants in Scid mice. Activation of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) under both genetic and metabolic stress conditions was associated with increased cathepsin L gene expression, which contributes to increased invasive property of cells. Reverted cells with approximately 70% of control cell mtDNA exhibited marker mRNA contents, cell morphology and invasive property closer to control cells. These results provide insights into a new pathway by which mitochondrial DNA and membrane damage can contribute to tumor progression and metastasis.