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MiR-21 up-regulation in ampullary adenocarcinoma and its pre-invasive lesions.

Research paper by Deborah D Saraggi, Francesca F Galuppini, Giuseppe N GN Fanelli, Andrea A Remo, Emanuele D L EDL Urso, Ricardo Q RQ Bao, Deborah D Bacchin, Vincenza V Guzzardo, Claudio C Luchini, Chiara C Braconi, Fabio F Farinati, Massimo M Rugge, Matteo M Fassan

Indexed on: 08 May '18Published on: 08 May '18Published in: Pathology - Research and Practice



Abstract

Poor information is available on the molecular landscape characterizing the carcinogenetic process leading to ampullary carcinoma. MiR-21 is one of the most frequently up-regulated miRNAs in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a tumor sharing similar molecular features with ampullary adenocarcinomas (AVCs), above all with the pancreatic-biliary type. We profiled, by in situ hybridization (ISH), miR-21 expression in a series of 26 AVCs, 50 ampullary dysplastic lesions (35 low-grade [LG-IEN] and 15 high-grade [HG-IEN]) and 10 normal duodenal mucosa samples. The same series was investigated by immunohistochemistry for β-catenin, p53 and HER2 expression. HER2 gene amplification was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization. To validate miR-21 ISH results we performed miR-21 qRT-PCR analysis in a series of 10 AVCs and their matched normal samples. All the normal control samples showed a negative or faint miR-21 expression, whereas a significant miR-21 up-regulation was observed during the carcinogenetic cascade (p < 0.001), with 21/26 (80.8%) of cancer samples showing a miR-21 overexpression. In comparison to control samples, a significant overexpression was found in samples of LG-IEN (p = .0003), HG-IEN (p = .0001), and AVCs (p < 0.0001). No significant difference in miR-21 overexpression was observed between LG-IEN, HG-IEN and AVCs. By qRT-PCR analysis, AVCs showed a 1.7-fold increase over the controls (p = .003). P53 was frequently dysregulated in both dysplastic and carcinoma samples (44 out of 76; 57.9%). A 20% (10/50) of dysplastic lesions and 11% (3/26) of carcinomas were characterized by a nuclear localization of β-catenin. Only 2 AVCs (7.7%; both intestinal-type) showed a HER2 overexpression (both 2+), which corresponded to a HER2 gene amplification at CISH analysis. This is the first study demonstrating a miRNA dysregulation in the whole spectrum of ampullary carcinogenesis. MiR-21 overexpression is an early molecular event during ampullary carcinogenesis and its levels increase with the neoplastic progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.