Indexed on: 16 Oct '16Published on: 16 Oct '16Published in: Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition
This paper covers algorithms for the management of regurgitation, constipation and infantile colic in infants. Anti-regurgitation formula may be considered in infants with troublesome regurgitation, while diagnostic investigations or drug therapy are not indicated in the absence of warning signs. Although probiotics have shown some positive evidence for the management of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the evidence is not strong enough to make a recommendation. A partially hydrolyzed infant formula with prebiotics and β-palmitate may be considered as a dietary intervention for functional constipation in formula fed infants. Lactulose has been shown to be effective and safe in infants younger than 6 months that are constipated. Macrogol (polyethylene glycol, PEG) is not approved for use in infants less than 6 months of age. However, PEG is preferred over lactulose in infants >6 months of age. Limited data suggests that infant formula with a partial hydrolysate, galacto-oligosaccharides/fructo-oligosaccharides, added β-palmitate may be of benefit in reducing infantile colic in formula fed infants in cases where cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is not suspected. Evidence suggests that the use of extensively hydrolyzed infant formula for a formula-fed baby and a cow's milk free diet for a breastfeeding mother may be beneficial to decrease infantile colic if CMPA is suspected. None of the FGIDs is a reason to stop breastfeeding.