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Microbial Recognition and Danger Signals in Sepsis and Trauma.

Research paper by Steven L SL Raymond, David C DC Holden, Juan C JC Mira, Julie A JA Stortz, Tyler J TJ Loftus, Alicia M AM Mohr, Lyle L LL Moldawer, Frederick A FA Moore, Shawn D SD Larson, Philip A PA Efron

Indexed on: 25 Jan '17Published on: 25 Jan '17Published in: Biochimica et biophysica acta



Abstract

Early host recognition of microbial invasion or damaged host tissues provides an effective warning system by which protective immune and inflammatory processes are initiated. Host tissues responsible for continuous sampling of their local environment employ cell surface and cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that provide redundant and overlapping identification of both microbial and host alarmins. Microbial products containing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as well as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) serve as principle ligands for recognition by these PRRs. It is this interaction which plays both an essential survival role in response to infection and injury, as well as the pathologic role in tissue and organ injury associated with severe sepsis and trauma. Elucidating the interaction between ligands and their respective PRRs can provide both a better understanding of the host response, as well as a rational basis for therapeutic intervention.