Imported: 17 Feb '17 | Published: 23 Sep '14
USPTO - Utility Patents
The object of the process of the invention is to increase the retention of starch in the sheet of paper in order to reduce operating costs and increase the physical characteristics of the paper. To that end, it has been envisaged that trivalent cationic salts are added, metered into the slurry or in the process for obtaining starch in powder form or by mixing a percentage of trivalent salts in powder form with the starch in powder form, seeking the solution of said salts in the slurry, so that they dissolve during the dispersion of the slurry in the process for obtaining the sheet of paper. Organic polymers such as polyacrylamides, polyvinylamides and polydadmacs could optionally be applied in addition to said salts.
The present invention relates to a method which has been particularly designed for the chemical treatment of the starch, which starch is intended for being applied by a sprinkler on the sheet of paper.
The object of the invention is to increase the retention of starch in the sheet of paper, as well as to form new ionic bonds between the fibers, in order to reduce operating costs and increase the physical characteristics of the paper.
In the practical scope of application of the invention, what is sought is to demonstrate the efficiency of the process in the flocculation of the starch slurry, which has been a long-sought objective that has been unsuccessful until now in an effective and continuous manner. This is demonstrated by the lack of implementation on the market. Many tests have been conducted, but either because the nozzles in the sprinkler become plugged or due to a lack of efficiency in the result, among other reasons, the results and treatments have been discarded.
The products used until now have consisted of cationic polyacrylamides, polyamides, polydadmac, polyethylenimines, polyimines, polyvinylamines and mixtures thereof, as well as anionic polyacrylamides, without obtaining any positive result.
The method for the chemical treatment of starch proposed by the invention solves in a fully satisfactory manner the aforementioned drawbacks, which allows obtaining a retention of the starch in the sheet of paper ranging between 20 and 50%, depending on the porosity of the sheet, as well as of the suction strength of the suction boxes.
To that end and more specifically, the method consists of using trivalent and/or bivalent inorganic cationic salts and, optionally, cationic organic polymers, which are metered onto any type of starch, which is applied superficially in a slurry by means of spraying it on the sheet of paper for the purpose of joining the different layers of paper to one another and/or increasing the physical characteristics of the sheet.
The described method will be carried out by means of stirring at room temperature in aqueous phase, and it can be indistinctly metered into the slurry or incorporated in the starch itself in powder form from the production factory of the same with the trivalent inorganic salts in solid form.
By means of said application, particles of different sizes are clustered together, unifying and increasing the starch particle size, thus achieving greater retention of the starch on the sheet and in turn creating strong chemical bonds between the fibers.
The organic polymers used could be polyacrylamides, polyvinylamides, polydadmacs and polyamines.
As mentioned above, the product to be applied in the slurry or in the starch itself in the process for obtaining the sheet of paper can be formed entirely by trivalent salts, or it can furthermore comprise a mixture of polydadmacs, polyacrylamides and polyvinylamide, all these components being able to be present at proportions comprised between 0.1 and 50% of the total weight of the mixture.
This composition reacts with the native starch pooling together different starch particles, regardless of the size of each of them, as well as it also reacts with the cellulosic fiber increasing the bonds between them and forming stronger bonds.
Due to the ionic nature of the trivalent inorganic cationic salts and their molecular arrangement, said salts have affinity for the particles of any type of starch, reacting with the native starch which is slightly anionic. Said reaction achieves joining together the necessary amount of particles to compensate for the cationic charge of the trivalent ion of the corresponding salt. A set of particles is thus obtained which behaves similarly to a single particle of a size that is up to 4 times greater.
Due to the fact that in one and the same starch sample there are particles with different sizes, it is observed that the trivalent salts are more reactive the smaller the starch particles due to their charge distribution and their specific surface, which causes a greater joining of the smaller particles of the distribution curve, whereas the size of the larger particles is hardly modified since they are less reactive. This phenomenon causes a modification in the particle distribution curve, making the curve more restricted, i.e., increasing the amount of larger particles, and generally increasing the size.
Increasing the starch particle size helps the starch, which is in a state of suspension with water, whether it is from the supply system or from the production system itself, once superficially applied partly or completely on the sheet of paper already formed, to remain in a larger amount, increasing its performance and therefore increasing the joining between several layers of paper, the physico-mechanical characteristics of the sheet, and reducing the amount of free starch in the process water. The treatment reduces starch consumption as well as the contaminants supplied in the process and waste water.
By way of example, a proportion of between 0.05% and 10% of Al2(SO4)3, AlCl3 or similar salts already described can be used on dry starch so that the trivalent ions, after dissociation from the inorganic salt, react with the starch particles, pooling several of them together. These salts have a higher tendency for these starch particles of a smaller size. According to the type of starch, these two salts are used alone or combined with one another and offer good results.
According to the type of starches, the need to use trivalent salts which act similarly but with some differences which aid, in combination, the aforementioned salts, is clear. These salts are FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3, and they are used in doses ranging from 0.05% and 10% on dry starch. These salts have greater affinity for these starch particles of mid-large size, which aids in proportionally increasing the general treated starch particle size.
Even though the sheet is already formed, due to the fact that it still has a minimum moisture content of 70%, the fibers forming it are at their optimal point for creating bonds between them, the organic and inorganic agents and the OH developed by the temperature of the dryers, which are in charge of cooking the polysaccharide.
Therefore, since under normal conditions the fibers also begin to form hydrogen bridge bonds between one another, upon contacting the cationic organic polymers an ionic charge attraction reaction occurs between the cationic polymer and the anionic fibers, forming much stronger ionic bonds than the bonds formed naturally from a hydrogen bridge. This phenomenon provides greater physical characteristics to the sheet of paper.
A composition of different cationic organic polymers which maintains charge balance, as well as the manner of acting of each of them with the fibers, has been sought in this invention.
First, a cationic polyacrylamide with medium-low molecular weight is used in a dose range between 0.1% and 20% on dry starch. This polyacrylamide is used to slightly increase the set of starch particles previously reacted with the different trivalent salts, and in turn leaving free cationic radicals which react with the cellulosic fiber once the starch is applied on the surface or in the mass.
Organic polymers, such as polyamines, polyvinylamides and polydadmacs, are also present in the composition, all having an application range between 0.1% and 30% on dry starch. These three families of polymers are in charge of reacting with the cellulosic fibers for the purpose of forming stronger ionic bonds than that of the hydrogen bridge, as well as to increase the amount of cross-linked fibers, in the event that the starch is applied in the mass or on the surface and at a point in which there is still a possibility of a loss of fibers with the washing or drainage water.
According to the foregoing, the process of obtaining a sheet of paper with the addition of the product proposed for carrying out laboratory tests would be the following: