Indexed on: 25 Jan '17Published on: 25 Jan '17Published in: Current Diabetes Reports
Metformin has been widely used for over 5 decades. New preparations have been developed for possible enhancement of efficiency, tolerability, and pleiotropic nonglycemic effects. Extended-release metformin has contributed to adherence and improved gastrointestinal tolerability. Delayed-release metformin acts in the lower gastrointestinal tract and exerts glucose-lowering effects at lower plasma metformin levels, which might suggest use of this biguanide in patients with chronic kidney disease. Metformin is also known to have numerous nonglycemic effects. Results of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study indicate improvements in cardiovascular outcome and reduced total mortality independent of glycemic control. Anticancer effects of metformin have been discussed and many clinical trials are on-going. Metformin is noted for its beneficial effects on lifespan extension and on disorders due to increased insulin resistance. Further investigations, including randomized control trials in nondiabetic individuals, are required to demonstrate the nonglycemic effects of metformin.