Melting relations of basalt-andesile-rhyolite-H2O and a pelagic red clay at 30 kb

Research paper by C. R. Stern, P. J. Wyllie

Indexed on: 01 Dec '73Published on: 01 Dec '73Published in: Contributions to mineralogy and petrology. Beitrage zur Mineralogie und Petrologie


An olivine basalt, a tonalite (andesite), a granite (rhyolite), and a red clay (pelagic sediment) were reacted, with known quantities of water in sealed noble metal capsules, in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 30 kb pressure. For the pelagic sediment, with H2O+=7.8% and no additional water, the liquidus temperature is 1240°C, the primary phases are garnet and kyanite. The subsolidus phase assemblage is phengite mica+garnet+clinopyroxene+coesite+kyanite. With 5 wt.% water added, the liquidus temperatures and primary phases for the calc-alkaline rocks are 1280°-1180°-1080°, garnet+clinopyroxene, garnet, and quartz respectively. Garnet and clinopyroxene occur throughout the melting interval of the olivine tholeiite for all water contents. Garnet is joined by clinopyroxene 80° below the andesite plus 5% H2O liquidus, quartz is joined by clinopyroxene 180° below the rhyolite plus 5% H2O liquidus. The subsolidus phase assemblage is garnet+clinopyroxene+coesite+minor kyanite for all the calc-alkaline compositions. We conclude that calc-alkaline andesites and rhyolites are not equilibrium partial melting pruducts of subducted oceanic crust consisting of olivine tholeiite basalt and siliceous sediments. Partial melting in subduction zones produces broadly acid and intermediate liquids, but these liquids lie off the calc-alkaline basalt-andesite-rhyolite join and must undergo modification at lower pressures to produce calcalkaline magmas erupted in overlying island arcs.