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Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

Research paper by Hemant K HK Satpathy, Alfred A Fleming, Donald D Frey, Michael M Barsoom, Chabi C Satpathy, Jimmy J Khandalavala

Indexed on: 01 Oct '08Published on: 01 Oct '08Published in: Postgraduate medicine



Abstract

Obesity is a global health problem that is increasing in prevalence. The World Health Organization characterizes obesity as a pandemic issue, with a higher prevalence in females than males. Thus, many pregnant patients are seen with high body mass index (BMI). Obesity during pregnancy is considered a high-risk state because it is associated with many complications. Compared with normal-weight patients, obese patients have a higher prevalence of infertility. Once they conceive, they have higher rate of early miscarriage and congenital anomalies, including neural tube defects. Besides the coexistence of preexisting diabetes mellitus and chronic hypertension, obese women are more likely to have pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, thromboembolism, macrosomia, and spontaneous intrauterine demises in the latter half of pregnancy. Obese women also require instrument or Cesarean section delivery more often than average-weight women. Following Cesarean section delivery, obese women have a higher incidence of wound infection and disruption. Irrespective of the delivery mode, children born to obese mothers have a higher incidence of macrosomia and associated shoulder dystocia, which can be highly unpredictable. In addition to being large at birth, children born to obese mothers are also more susceptible to obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Prevention is the best way to prevent this problem. As pregnancy is the worst time to lose weight, women with a high BMI should be encouraged to lose weight prior to conceiving. During preconception counseling, they should be educated about the complications associated with high a BMI. Obese women should also be screened for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In early pregnancy, besides being watchful about the higher association of miscarriage, obese women should be screened with ultrasound for congenital anomalies around 18 to 22 weeks. The ultrasound should be repeated close to term to check on the estimated fetal weight to rule out macrosomia. Obese pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes around 24 to 28 weeks. During the second half of pregnancy, one needs to closely watch for signs and symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Once in labor, an early anesthesia consultation is highly recommended irrespective of delivery mode. When Cesarean section is performed, many obstetricians prefer an incision above the pannus to avoid skin infection. However, the incision should be decided upon the discretion of the surgeon. Peripartum, special attention is given to avoid thromboembolism by using compression stockings and early ambulation.