Indexed on: 19 Apr '12Published on: 19 Apr '12Published in: Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
The authors examined the relationship of maternal anthropometry to fetal growth and birth weight among 1005 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Lilongwe, Malawi, who consented to enrollment in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study (www.thebanstudy.org). Anthropometric assessments of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), and arm fat area (AFA) were collected at the baseline visit between 12 and 30 weeks' gestation and in up to 4 follow-up prenatal visits. In longitudinal analysis, fundal height increased monotonically at an estimated rate of 0.92 cm/wk and was positively and negatively associated with AMA and AFA, respectively. These latter relationships varied over weeks of follow-up. Baseline MUAC, AMA, and AFA were positively associated with birth weight (MUAC: 31.84 g/cm(2), 95% confidence interval [CI], 22.18-41.49 [P < .01]; AMA: 6.88 g/cm(2), 95% CI, 2.51-11.26 [P < .01]; AFA: 6.97 g/cm(2), 95% CI, 3.53-10.41 [P < .01]). In addition, MUAC and AMA were both associated with decreased odds for low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) (MUAC: odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% CI, 0.77-0.94 [P < .01]; AMA: OR = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.91-0.99 [P < .05]). These findings support the use of MUAC as an efficient, cost-effective screening tool for LBW in HIV-infected women, as in HIV-uninfected women.