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Maternal diet and gestational diabetes mellitus development.

Research paper by Malgorzata M Mizgier, Grazyna G Jarzabek-Bielecka, Kinga K Mruczyk

Indexed on: 31 Mar '19Published on: 30 Mar '19Published in: The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians



Abstract

All possible measures should be taken to prevent glucose tolerance disorders and limit their consequences. The aim of this study was to show the relationship between maternal eating habits and the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The nutrition of 55 pregnant women was evaluated using a three-day food record and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and nutrition of 12 months before pregnancy was assessed only by means of the FFQ. The patients were divided into groups: H - with uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 42) and GDM - with gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 13), based on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results performed between 24 and 28 weeks. Significant differences were found between groups H and GDM in terms of daily fat intake (32.1 versus 36.2%) and dietary reference values (standards) for total fat, monosaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polysaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In the GDM group, the coverage of standards for total fat, staturated fatty acids (SFA) and MUFA exceeded the recommended values. Moreover, patients from this group consumed products typical for the "Western model of nutrition" more often, which may contribute to GDM. A "Western diet" and higher intake of energy from total fat and saturated fatty acid in the first half of pregnancy and before pregnancy may contribute to an increased risk of developing GDM.