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Materials, Vol. 9, Pages 821: A Review of PMMA Bone Cement and Intra‐Cardiac Embolism

Research paper by Puneeth Shridhar, Yanfei Chen, Ramzi Khalil, Anton Plakseychuk, Sung Cho, Bryan Tillman, Prashant Kumta, YoungJae Chun

Indexed on: 08 Oct '16Published on: 06 Oct '16Published in: Materials



Abstract

Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure is of major importance, given the significantly increasing aging population and the higher number of orthopedic procedures related to vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty is a complex technique involving the injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the compressed vertebral body for mechanical stabilization of the fracture. Our understanding and ability to modify these mechanisms through alterations in cement material is rapidly evolving. However, the rate of cardiac complications secondary to PMMA injection and subsequent cement leakage has increased with time. The following review considers the main effects of PMMA bone cement on the heart, and the extent of influence of the materials on cardiac embolism. Clinically, cement leakage results in life‐threatening cardiac injury. The convolution of this outcome through an appropriate balance of complex material properties is highlighted via clinical case reports.