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Massive young disks around Herbig Ae stars

Research paper by Jeremie Boissier, Tomas Alonso-Albi, Asuncion Fuente, Olivier Berne, Rafael Bachiller, Roberto Neri, David Ginard

Indexed on: 04 May '11Published on: 04 May '11Published in: arXiv - Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics



Abstract

Herbig Ae stars (HAe) are the precursors of Vega-type systems and, therefore, crucial objects in planet formation studies. Thus far, only a few disks associated with HAe stars have been studied using millimetre interferometers. Our aim is to determine the dust evolution and the lifetime of the disks associated with Herbig Ae stars. We imaged the continuum emission at 3 mm and 1.3 mm of the Herbig Ae/Be stars BD+61154, RR Tau, VY Mon and LkHa 198 using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These stars are in the upper end of the stellar mass range of the Herbig Ae stars (stellar mass greater than 3 solar masses). Our measurements were used to complete the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). The modelling of the SED, in particular the FIR-mm part, allow us to determine the masses and dust properties of these disks. We detected the disks associated with BD+61154, RR Tau and VY Mon with disk masses of 0.35 Msun, 0.05 Msun and 0.40 Msun respectively. The disk around LkHa 198 was not detected with an upper limit to the disk mass of 0.004 Msun. We detected, however, the disks associated with the younger stellar objects LkHa 198--IR and LkHa 198-mm that are located in the vicinity of LkHa 198. The fitting of the mm part of the SED reveal that the grains in the mid-plane of the disks around BD+61154, RR Tau and VY Mon have sizes of 1--1000 microns. Therefore, grains have not grown to centimetre sizes in these disks yet. These massive (M>3 Msun) and young (about 1 Myr) HAe stars are surrounded by massive (>0.04 Msun) disks with grains of micron-millimetre sizes. Although grain growth is proceeding in these disks, their evolutionary stage is prior to the formation of planetesimals. These disks are less evolved than those detected around T Tauri and Herbig Be stars.