Indexed on: 01 Aug '18Published on: 01 Aug '18Published in: PNAS
Understanding of T cell exhaustion and successful therapy to restore T cell function was first described using Clone (Cl) 13 variant selected from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Armstrong (ARM) 53b parental strain. T cell exhaustion plays a pivotal role in both persistent infections and cancers of mice and humans. C57BL/6, BALB, SWR/J, A/J, 129, C3H, and all but one collaborative cross (CC) mouse strain following Cl 13 infection have immunosuppressed T cell responses, high PD-1, and viral titers leading to persistent infection and normal life spans. In contrast, the profile of FVB/N, NZB, PL/J, SL/J, and CC NZO mice challenged with Cl 13 is a robust T cell response, high titers of virus, PD-1, and Lag3 markers on T cells. These mice all die 7 to 9 d after Cl 13 infection. Death is due to enhanced pulmonary endothelial vascular permeability, pulmonary edema, collapse of alveolar air spaces, and respiratory failure. Pathogenesis involves abundant levels of Cl 13 receptor alpha-dystroglycan on endothelial cells, with high viral replication in such cells leading to immunopathologic injury. Death is aborted by blockade of interferon-1 (IFN-1) signaling or deletion of CD8 T cells.