Indexed on: 14 Sep '07Published on: 14 Sep '07Published in: Circulation
Renal insufficiency is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after cardiopulmonary bypass cardiac surgery. B-type natriuretic peptide is a cardiac hormone that enhances glomerular filtration rate and inhibits aldosterone. Cystatin has been shown to be a better endogenous marker of renal function than creatinine.We performed a double-blinded placebo-controlled proof of concept pilot study in patients (n=40) with renal insufficiency preoperatively (defined as an estimated creatinine clearance of <60 mL/min determined by the Cockroft-Gault formula), undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized to placebo (n=20) or i.v. low dose nesiritide (n=20; 0.005 microg/Kg/min) for 24 hours started after the induction of anesthesia and before cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients in the nesiritide group had an increase of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide and its second messenger cGMP with a decrease in plasma cystatin levels at the end of the 24-hour infusion. These changes were not observed in the placebo group. There was a significant activation of aldosterone in the placebo group at the end of the 24-hour infusion, but not in the nesiritide group. At 48 and 72 hours, there was a decrease in estimated creatinine clearance and an increase in plasma cystatin as compared with end of the 24-hour infusion in the placebo group. In contrast, renal function was preserved in the nesiritide group with no significant change in estimated creatinine clearance and a trend for plasma cystatin to increase as compared with end of the 24-hour infusion.This proof of concept pilot study supports the conclusion that perioperative administration of low dose nesiritide is biologically active and decreases plasma cystatin in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass cardiac surgery. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these physiological observations can be translated into improved clinical outcomes.