Location Estimation with Reactive Routing in Resource Constrained Sensor Networks

Research paper by Sanat Sarangi, Subrat Kar

Indexed on: 01 Aug '12Published on: 01 Aug '12Published in: Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture


Routing algorithms for wireless sensor networks can be broadly divided into two classes - proactive and reactive. Proactive routing is suitable for a network with a fixed topology. On the other hand, reactive routing is more suitable for a set of mobile nodes where routes are created on demand and there is not much time to evaluate the worthiness of a route, the prime concern being reachability due to constantly changing node positions. Sensor networks route events of interest from source(s) to destination(s) where appropriate actions could be taken. However, with mobile sensor nodes, it is not only important to know the events but the location of the nodes generating the events. Most sensor nodes are not equipped with expensive GPS or accurate RSSI computation hardware to aid localization. Keeping these in view, we propose a modified reactive routing algorithm, with added support for localization, to localize mobile sensor nodes on the basis of information received from fixed sensor nodes during mutual exchange of routing control packets. The accuracy of localization depends on the ratio of the number of fixed nodes to the number of mobile nodes and the topology of the fixed nodes. A typical application scenario would be a mix of mobile nodes and fixed nodes, where fixed nodes know their absolute location and the location of mobile nodes is derived from the fixed nodes, in step with the reactive routing protocol in action. The modified algorithm would be suitable for deployments where the approximate position of a mobile node (i.e. the event location) is required but there is no external support infrastructure available for localization.