Indexed on: 28 Feb '17Published on: 28 Feb '17Published in: Frontiers in neuroscience
Objective: High Density electroencephalography (HD EEG) is the reference non-invasive technique to investigate the dynamics of neuronal networks in Benign Epilepsy with Centro-Temporal Spikes (BECTS). Analysis of local dynamic changes surrounding Interictal Epileptic Spikes (IES) might improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that propel neurons to the hypersynchronization of IES in BECTS. Transient distant changes in the dynamics of neurons populations may also interact with neuronal networks involved in various functions that are impaired in BECTS patients. Methods: HD EEG (64 electrodes) of eight well-characterized BECTS patients (8 males; mean age: 7.2 years, range: 5-9 years) were analyzed. Unilateral IES were selected in 6 patients. They were bilateral and independent in 2 other patients. This resulted in a total of 10 groups of IES. Time-frequency analysis was performed on HD EEG epochs around the peak of the IES (±1000 ms), including phase-locked and non-phase-locked activities to the IES. The time frequency analyses were calculated for the frequencies between 4 and 200 Hz. Results: Time-frequency analysis revealed two patterns of dysregulation of the synchronization between neuronal networks preceding and following hypersynchronization of interictal spikes (±400 ms) in the epileptogenic zone. Dysregulation consists of either desynchronization (n = 6) or oscillating synchronization (n = 4) (4-50 Hz) surrounding the IES. The 2 patients with bilateral IES exhibited only local desynchronization whatever the IES considered. Distant desynchronization in low frequencies within the same window occurs simultaneously in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital areas (n = 7). Significance: Using time-frequency analysis of HD EEG data in a well-defined population of BECTS, we demonstrated repeated complex changes in the dynamics of neuronal networks not only during, but also, before and after the IES. In the epileptogenic zone, our results found more complex reorganization of the local network than initially thought. In line with previous results obtained at a microscopic or macroscopic level, these changes suggested the variability strategies of neuronal assemblies to raise IES. Distant changes from the epileptogenic zone in desynchronization observed in the same time window suggested interactions between larger embedded networks and opened new avenues about their possible role in the underlying mechanism leading to cognitive deficits.