Indexed on: 19 Oct '10Published on: 19 Oct '10Published in: Biologie aujourd'hui
Plants are sessile organisms that have developed the capacity to detect slight variations of their environment. They are able to perceive these environmental signals and to transduce them by signaling pathways in order to trigger adaptative responses. Lipid signaling elements play a central role in these pathways in plants. A key element is phosphatidic acid (PA), which can be produced by two pathways. In the first one, phospholipids are hydrolysed by phospholipase D (PLD) to release PA. In the second one, PA is produced through the activity of phospholipase C (PLC) to produce diacylglycerol (DAG) which is then phosphorylated by DAG kinase (DAGK). The amount of PA in the cell is regulated by PA kinase, which phosphorylates PA to produce diacylglycerolpyrophosphate (DGPP), considered as a second messenger as well. PLCs play a dual role in cell signaling by regulating the amount of intracellular Ca(2+), another essential second messenger. Phosphoinositides, such as PI3P, PI4P and PI(4,5)P(2), are substrates of PLCs and PLDs and are considered as second messengers also. In this review, we present recent data regarding the specific features of these lipid signaling pathways in plant compared with other eukaryotes.