Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
Familial LCAT deficiency (FLD) is due to mutations in Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol on lipoproteins. FLD is associated with markedly reduced levels of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and cholesteryl ester (CE), and the formation of a nephrotoxic lipoprotein called LpX. We used a mouse model in which the LCAT gene is deleted and a truncated version of the SREBP1a gene is expressed in the liver under the control of a protein-rich/carbohydrate-low (PRCL) diet-regulated PEPCK promoter. This mouse was found to form abundant amounts of LpX in the plasma and was used to determine whether treatment with recombinant human LCAT (rhLCAT) could prevent LpX formation and renal injury. After 9 days on the PRCL diet, plasma total and free cholesterol, as well as phospholipids, increased 6.1±0.6, 9.6±0.9 and 6.7±0.7-fold, respectively, and liver cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations increased 1.7±0.4 and 2.8±0.9 fold, respectively, compared to chow-fed animals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed robust accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes and the appearance of multilamellar LpX particles in liver sinusoids and bile canaliculi. In the kidney, LpX was found in glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, the glomerular basement membrane, and the mesangium. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio increased 30-fold on the PRCL diet compared to chow-fed controls. Treatment of these mice with intravenous rhLCAT restored the normal lipoprotein profile, eliminated LpX in plasma and kidneys, and markedly decreased proteinuria. The combined results suggest that rhLCAT infusion could be an effective therapy for the prevention of renal disease in patients with FLD. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.