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Lateral temporal encephaloceles: case-based review

Research paper by Yuichi Nagata, Kazuhito Takeuchi, Mihoko Kato, Jonsu Chu, Toshihiko Wakabayashi

Indexed on: 06 Apr '16Published on: 04 Apr '16Published in: Child's Nervous System



Abstract

Lateral temporal encephalocele is an extremely rare clinical condition, with only 18 cases presented in the literature to date. No review articles have examined lateral temporal encephalocele in depth. We therefore reviewed past cases of lateral encephalocele to clarify the clinical characteristics of this extremely rare deformity. We also present a case of lateral encephalocele with arachnoid cyst which has never been reported in past reports.We identified 8 reports describing 18 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele. We therefore reviewed 19 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele, including our own experience, and discussed the clinical characteristics of this pathology.All the cases with lateral temporal encephalocele were detected at birth except for an occult case. The majority occurred at the pterion, and occurrence at the asterion appears much rarer. Due to the preference for the pterion, the ipsilateral orbital wall was also distorted in some cases. Lateral temporal encephalocele seems to have fewer associated malformations: only 3 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele had associated malformations, including our case which was associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst. The only case of lateral temporal encephalocele to have shown hydrocephalus was our own case. Patients with this deformity have relatively good prognoses: only 3 of the 19 cases showed delayed psychomotor development during follow-up.Provision of adequate treatment is likely to achieve a good prognosis in patients with lateral temporal encephalocele, so we should keep in mind this deformity when encountering pediatric patients with mass lesions on the temporal cranium.