Indexed on: 17 Nov '10Published on: 17 Nov '10Published in: Physics of the Solid State
A detailed review of theories describing the current-phase relations in Josephson junctions based on heterostructures with ferromagnetic layers is presented. The particular attention has been focused on the possibilities of making the so-called ϕ-junctions in which the ground state in the absence of the current is realized when the Josephson phase ϕ is nonzero. The recently popular speculations concerning the possibility of applying the Josephson π- and ϕ-junctions, which are made on the basis of heterostructures with ferromagnetic layers, to the formation of quantum bits (qubits) have been illustrated. An attempt to formulate the requirements for the characteristics of the Josephson heterostructures based on the first principles of the quantum-mechanical description of superconducting interferometers with a low inductance has been made.