Is there Correlation between Fine Structure and Dark Energy Cosmic Dipoles?

Research paper by Antonio Mariano, Leandros Perivolaropoulos

Indexed on: 05 Sep '12Published on: 05 Sep '12Published in: arXiv - Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics


We present a detailed analysis (including redshift tomography) of the cosmic dipoles in the Keck+VLT quasar absorber and in the Union2 SnIa samples. We show that the fine structure constant cosmic dipole obtained through the Keck+VLT quasar absorber sample at $4.1\sigma$ level is anomalously aligned with the corresponding dark energy dipole obtained through the Union2 sample at $2\sigma$ level. The angular separation between the two dipole directions is $11.3^\circ \pm 11.8^\circ$. We use Monte Carlo simulations to find the probability of obtaining the observed dipole magnitudes with the observed alignment, in the context of an isotropic cosmological model with no correlation between dark energy and fine structure constant $\alpha$. We find that this probability is less than one part in $10^6$. We propose a simple physical model (extended topological quintessence) which naturally predicts a spherical inhomogeneous distribution for both dark energy density and fine structure constant values. The model is based on the existence of a recently formed giant global monopole with Hubble scale core which also couples non-minimally to electromagnetism. Aligned dipole anisotropies would naturally emerge for an off-centre observer for both the fine structure constant and for dark energy density. This model smoothly reduces to \lcdm for proper limits of its parameters. Two predictions of this model are (a) a correlation between the existence of strong cosmic electromagnetic fields and the value of $\alpha$ and (b) the existence of a dark flow on Hubble scales due to the repulsive gravity of the global defect core (`Great Repulser') aligned with the dark energy and $\alpha$ dipoles. The direction of the dark flow is predicted to be towards the spatial region of lower accelerating expansion. Existing data about the dark flow are consistent with this prediction.