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This board is owned by Matt Holland, NWAS LKS, Librarian. Contact Matt.Holland@nwas.nhs.uk


Hosts recent articles from research based journals. Pinboard started in September 2016.


Attitudes towards bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Results from a cross-sectional general population survey.

Abstract: Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) varies across the developed world. Although not all OHCA are recoverable, the survival rate in Scotland is lower than in comparable countries, with higher average survival rates of 7.9% in England and 9% across Europe. The purpose of this paper is to explore the barriers, facilitators and public attitudes to administering bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which could inform future policy and initiatives to improve the rate of bystander CPR. Data was collected via a cross-sectional general population survey of 1027 adults in Scotland. 52% of respondents had been trained in CPR. Of those who were not trained, two fifths (42%) expressed a willingness to receive CPR training. Fewer than half (49%) felt confident administering CPR, rising to 82% if they were talked through it by a call handler. Multivariate analyses identified that people in social grade C2DE were less likely than those in social grade ABC1 to be CPR trained and less confident to administer CPR if talked through by a call handler. The older a person was, the less likely they were to be CPR trained, show willingness to be CPR trained or be confident to administer bystander CPR with or without instruction from an emergency call handler. These findings are particularly relevant considering that most OHCA happen in the homes of older people. In a developed country such as Scotland with widely available CPR training, only half of the adult population reported feeling confident about administering bystander CPR. Further efforts tailored specifically for people who are older, unemployed and have a lower social grade are required to increase knowledge, confidence and uptake of training in bystander CPR.

Pub.: 08 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Functional Impairment, and Subjective Distress in World Trade Center Disaster Workers

Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with functional deficits, poor physical health, and diminished quality of life. Limited research has examined PTSD symptom clusters and their associations with functioning and distress among disaster recovery workers, a population at high risk for PTSD due to potential for repeated trauma. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between overall PTSD severity, as well as PTSD symptom clusters, and social and occupational functioning and subjective distress in World Trade Center (WTC) disaster workers after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (9/11). Disaster workers deployed to the site of the attacks completed assessments at three time points over approximately 5 years post-9/11. Our sample consisted of participants who met criteria for PTSD or subthreshold PTSD at baseline (n = 514), 1-year (n = 289), and 2-year follow-up (n = 179). Adjusted linear regression indicated that Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)-rated PTSD severity was positively associated with subjective distress, and deficits in social and occupational functioning, over time, CAPS Criterion F items; βs = .20 to .62, ps < .001. The reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptom clusters were associated with increased subjective distress, the avoidance/numbing and hyperarousal clusters were associated with deficits in social functioning, and the reexperiencing and hyperarousal clusters were associated with worse occupational functioning. These associations were consistent across the study period. Findings point to the importance of targeting PTSD symptom clusters associated with specific areas of functional impairment, with the goal of improving global outcomes.

Pub.: 14 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Clinical assessment is a neglected component of outbreak preparedness: evidence from refugee camps in Greece

Abstract: Refugees may have an increased vulnerability to infectious diseases, and the consequences of an outbreak are more severe in a refugee camp. When an outbreak is suspected, access to clinical information is critical for investigators to verify that an outbreak is occurring, to determine the cause and to select interventions to control it. Experience from previous outbreaks suggests that the accuracy and completeness of this information is poor. This study is the first to assess the adequacy of clinical characterisation of acute medical illnesses in refugee camps. The objective is to direct improvements in outbreak identification and management in this vulnerable setting.We collected prospective data in 13 refugee camps in Greece. We passively observed consultations where patients presented with syndromes that might warrant inclusion into an existing syndromic surveillance system and then undertook a structured assessment of routine clinical data collection to examine the extent to which key clinical parameters required for an outbreak response were ascertained and then documented.A total of 528 patient consultations were included. The most common presenting condition was an acute respiratory illness. Clinicians often made a comprehensive clinical assessment, especially for common syndromes of respiratory and gastrointestinal conditions, but documented their findings less frequently. For fewer than 5% of patients were a full set of vital signs ascertained and so the severity of patient illnesses was largely unknown. In only 11% of consultations was it verified that a patient who met the case criteria for syndromic surveillance reporting based on an independent assessment was reported into the system.Opportunities exist to strengthen clinical data capture and recording in refugee camps, which will produce a better calibrated and directed public health response.Information of significant utility for outbreak response is collected at the clinical interface and we recommend improving how this information is recorded and linked into surveillance systems.

Pub.: 19 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Management of Cold Water-induced Hypothermia: A Simulation Scenario for Layperson Training Delivered via a Mobile Tele-simulation Unit.

Abstract: Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has one of the highest provincial drowning rates in Canada, largely due to the many rural communities located near bodies of water. Factor in the province's cold climate (average NL's freshwater temperature is below 5.4°C)and the prevalence of winter recreational activities among the population, there exists an inherent risk of ice-related injuries and subsequent hypothermia. Oftentimes, these injuries occur in remote/rural settings where immediate support from Emergency Medical Services (EMS) may not be available. During this critical period, it frequently falls on individuals without formal healthcare training to provide lifesaving measures until help arrives. Training individuals in rural communities plays an important role in ensuring public safety. In recent years, simulation-based education has become an essential tool in medical, marine and first aid training. It provides learners with a safe environment to hone their skills and has been shown to be superior to traditional clinical teaching methods. The following case aims to train laypeople from rural settings in the immediate management of an individual who becomes hypothermic following immersion into cold water. However, reaching these individuals to provide training can be a challenge in a province with such a vast geography. To assist with overcoming this, the development of a simulation center that is portable between communities (or Mobile Tele-Simulation Unit) has occurred. By utilizing modern technology, this paper also proposes an innovative method of connecting with learners in more difficult to reach regions.

Pub.: 06 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Canceled to Be Called Back: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Canceled Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Scene Calls That are Later Transferred to a Trauma Center

Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018 Source:Air Medical Journal Author(s): Brodie Nolan, Alun Ackery, Avery Nathens, Bruce Sawadsky, Homer Tien Introduction In our trauma system, helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) can be requested to attend a scene call for an injured patient before arrival by land paramedics. Land paramedics can cancel this response if they deem it unnecessary. The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency of canceled HEMS scene calls that were subsequently transferred to 2 trauma centers and to assess for any impact on morbidity and mortality. Methods Probabilistic matching was used to identify canceled HEMS scene call patients who were later transported to 2 trauma centers over a 48-month period. Registry data were used to compare canceled scene call patients with direct from scene patients. Results There were 290 requests for HEMS scene calls, of which 35.2% were canceled. Of those canceled, 24.5% were later transported to our trauma centers. Canceled scene call patients were more likely to be older and to be discharged home from the trauma center without being admitted. Conclusion There is a significant amount of undertriage of patients for whom an HEMS response was canceled and later transported to a trauma center. These patients face similar morbidity and mortality as patients who are brought directly from scene to a trauma center.

Pub.: 04 Feb '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Air Medical Simulation Training: A Retrospective Review of Cost and Effectiveness

Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018 Source:Air Medical Journal Author(s): Marc P. Dotson, Mark L. Gustafson, Alfred Tager, Leslie M. Peterson Objective Simulation training is an integral part of the training of medical personnel. However, there are limited data on the use of simulation in the training of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). Methods In this study, we retrospectively compared the number of orientation flights needed to be released to a full crewmember and the cost of training in an air medical flight academy before and after implementation of a high-fidelity air medical simulator. A total of 13 participants in the air medical services flight academy were analyzed. Four of these participants went through the standard academy. Nine participants went through the standard academy but had additional training using the simulator. Results There was no statistical difference in the number of orientation flights before release from training (P = .35). Also, although there was a trend that the simulator decreased the overall cost of training, there was no significant difference between the groups (P = .16). Conclusion This study found that the use of a high-fidelity simulator when training HEMS personnel does not significantly reduce the number of orientation flights needed to become a full crewmember. There was a trend toward a significant reduction in the total cost of training.

Pub.: 04 Feb '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Major haemorrhage protocols

Abstract: Major haemorrhage protocols are aimed at optimizing the care of patients suffering life-threatening bleeding. They should clearly set out the responsibilities of all of the staff involved including clinical and laboratory teams and other support staff with explicit lines of communication to support a prompt response without delays. The emphasis is on ready access to blood and components to limit coagulopathy in conjunction with definitive methods of controlling haemorrhage. High-quality evidence for the early use of tranexamic acid strongly supports the inclusion of this drug in protocols for trauma and obstetric haemorrhage. Although national and international guidelines recommend the use of MHPs, they are not without drawbacks. Much of the evidence for their use comes from studies of trauma haemorrhage, and although the principles are widely applied to other clinical settings, there is a lack of data to guide practice in bleeding from other causes. Initial empirical replacement of red cells and plasma in fixed ratios largely based on experience from the military is now common in trauma, but this approach might result in overtreatment of some patients. As hypofibrinogenaemia is a poor prognostic factor, the inclusion of early fibrinogen replacement deserves attention and is the subject of active research. Further studies are examining the use of targeted transfusion strategies based on near-patient testing, use of whole blood and chilled platelets, expanding indications for tranexamic acid and component use in the prehospital setting. MHPs should be reviewed regularly following local audit with ongoing update to reflect new research findings.

Pub.: 06 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Pre-hospital National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is associated with in-hospital mortality and critical care unit admission: A cohort study.

Abstract: National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is increasingly used in UK hospitals. However, there is only limited evidence to support the use of pre-hospital early warning scores. We hypothesised that pre-hospital NEWS was associated with death or critical care escalation within the first 48 h of hospital stay. Planned secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study at a single UK teaching hospital. Consecutive medical ward admissions over a 20-day period were included in the study. Data were collected from ambulance report forms, medical notes and electronic patient records. Pre-hospital NEWS was calculated retrospectively. The primary outcome was a composite of death or critical care unit escalation within 48 h of hospital admission. The secondary outcome was length of hospital stay. 189 patients were included in the analysis. The median pre-hospital NEWS was 3 (IQR 1-5). 13 patients (6.9%) died or were escalated to the critical care unit within 48 h of hospital admission. Pre-hospital NEWS was associated with death or critical care unit escalation (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.51; p = 0.02), but NEWS on admission to hospital was more strongly associated with this outcome (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.18-1.97, p < 0.01). Neither was associated with hospital length of stay. Pre-hospital NEWS was associated with death or critical care unit escalation within 48 h of hospital admission. NEWS could be used by ambulance crews to assist in the early triage of patients requiring hospital treatment or rapid transport. Further cohort studies or trials in large samples are required before implementation.

Pub.: 08 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Time to Epinephrine Administration and Survival from Non-Shockable Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Among Children and Adults.

Abstract: -Previous studies have demonstrated that earlier epinephrine administration is associated with improved survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with shockable initial rhythms. However, the effect of epinephrine timing on patients with non-shockable initial rhythms is unclear. The objective of this study was to measure the association between time to epinephrine administration and survival in adults and children with EMS-treated OHCA with non-shockable initial rhythms.-We performed a secondary analysis of OHCAs prospectively identified by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) network from June 4, 2011 to June 30, 2015. We included patients of all ages with an EMS-treated OHCA and an initial non-shockable rhythm. We excluded those with return of spontaneous circulation in < 10 minutes. We conducted a subgroup analysis involving patients < 18 years. The primary exposure was time (minutes) from arrival of the first EMS agency to the first dose of epinephrine. Secondary exposure was time to epinephrine dichotomized as "early" (<10 minutes) or "late" (≥10 minutes). The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. We adjusted for Utstein covariates and ROC study site.-From 55,568 EMS-treated OHCAs, 32,101 patients with initial non-shockable rhythms were included. There were 12,238 in the "early" group, 14,517 in the "late" group, and 5346 not treated with epinephrine. After adjusting for potential confounders, each minute from EMS arrival to epinephrine administration was associated with a 4% decrease in odds of survival for adults, OR = 0.96 (95% CI 0.95, 0.98). A subgroup analysis (n=13,290) examining neurological outcomes showed a similar association (adjusted OR 0.94 per minute; 95%CI 0.89-0.98). When epinephrine was given late compared to early, odds of survival were 18% lower (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-0.98). In a pediatric analysis (n=595), odds of survival were 9% lower (OR 0.91; 95%CI 0.81-1.01) for each minute delay in epinephrine.-Among OHCA's with non-shockable initial rhythms, the majority of patients were administered epinephrine > 10 minutes after EMS arrival. Each minute delay in epinephrine administration was associated with decreased survival and unfavorable neurological outcomes. EMS agencies should consider strategies to reduce epinephrine administration times in patients with initial non-shockable rhythms.

Pub.: 08 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Perceived exertion using two different EMS stretcher systems, report from a Swedish study.

Abstract: Emergency medical services (EMS) facilitate out of hospital care in a wide variety of settings on a daily basis. Stretcher-related adverse events and long term musculoskeletal injuries are commonly reported. Novel stretcher mechanisms may facilitate enhanced movement of patients and reduce workload for EMS personnel. To describe EMS personnel's perceived exertion using two different stretcher systems. The methodology of this explorative simulation study included enrolling twenty (n=20) registered nurses and paramedics who worked in ten pairs (n=10) to transport a conscious, 165lb. (75kg) patient using two different EMS stretcher systems: the Pensi stretcher labeled A and the ALLFA stretcher labeled B. The ten pairs (n=10) were randomized to use either an A stretcher or a B stretcher with subsequent crossover. The pairs performed six identical tasks with each stretcher, including conveying stretchers from an ambulance up to the first floor of a building via a staircase, loading a patient on to the stretcher, and using the stretcher to transport the patient back to the ambulance. The subjective Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) survey (Borg scale) was used to measure perceived exertion at predefined intervals during transport. No significant differences in workload were seen between stretcher groups A and B regarding unloading the stretcher (7.4 vs 8.2 p=0.3), transporting up a stairway (13.7 vs 12.5 p=0.06), lateral lift (12.1 vs 11.2 p=0.5), or flat ground transportation (10.4 vs 11.1 p=0.13). Pairs using stretcher A showed significantly less workload with regards to transporting down a stairway (11.0 vs 14.5 p<0.001) and loading into ambulance (11.1 vs 13.0 p<0.001). A structured methodology may be used for testing the exertion levels experienced while using different stretcher systems. The use of supporting stretcher system mechanisms may reduce perceived exertion in EMS personnel mainly during transports down stairs and during loading into ambulance vehicles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Pub.: 08 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Effect of Dial-Out Prefix Change on 9-1-1 Calls at a Large State University.

Abstract: Accessing the emergency medical services system via 9-1-1 operators is an effective way for patients to seek urgent health care; however, technological advances and telecommunication practices inundate the 9-1-1 and emergency services infrastructure with unintentional calls that delay response efforts to legitimate medical emergencies. To determine whether the change in university-wide dial-out prefix from "9" to "7" reduced unnecessary calls to a 9-1-1 call center. This is a retrospective study conducted utilizing information obtained from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) Department of Public Safety (DPS) call center. Call center calls received during pre-change, intervening, and post-change periods were included in the study. The cost savings, defined in time and money, resulting from the prefix change were also examined. A total of 33,646 calls were made during the study period (January 11, 2010 through December 31, 2012) and included in the analysis. The prefix change was found to reduce the rate of invalid calls to the call center by 319 calls per month, resulting in a 43% reduction in total calls to the call center while preserving the rate of valid calls. The largest decrease occurred in hang-up calls (a decrease of 232 calls per month), especially those originating from the university. The prefix change was found to save the UNC DPS telecommunications division approximately $798.82 per month and the police officer division approximately $3,874.95 per month. A prefix change was not only beneficial to the UNC community but it also has potentially wide-reaching effects. A reduction of invalid 9-1-1 calls translates to telecommunicators having more time available to handle true emergencies, phone lines remaining available for true emergencies, and police officers dedicating more time and effort to matters that necessitate officer assistance. Based on the call decrease seen with the prefix change, this study may be used as evidence to advocate for a change of dial-out codes beginning with "9."

Pub.: 10 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Trusting early learners with critical professional activities through emergency medical technician certification.

Abstract: Two dominant themes face medical education: developing integrated curricula and improving the undergraduate medical education (UME) to graduate medical education (GME) transition. An innovative solution to both of these challenges at the Zucker School of Medicine has been the application of the cognitive apprenticeship framework in requiring emergency medical technician (EMT) certification during the first course in medical school as the core on which to build an integrated curriculum and provide entrustable clinical skills. Beginning with the Class of 2011, student feedback about the short-term impact of the experience was collected annually. In addition, perceptions of near graduates and alumni were surveyed in 2017 to explore the long-term impact of the experience. Theme analysis was conducted via inductive coding. Both first-year and more experienced learners report the value of the EMT curriculum as an integrated component of the first course of medical school. Reported positive long-term impacts included the first-hand observation of social determinants of health and interprofessionalism. Negative comments by early learners focused on course logistics, whereas older learners recalled the variability of clinical experiences during ambulance runs. The integration of the EMT curriculum as a core component of the first course serves multiple purposes: 1) it provides the foundation of a spiral learning approach; 2) it contextualizes the basic sciences within clinical practice; 3) it provides opportunities for students to engage in authentic clinical activities under the guidance of mentors; 4) it introduces students to the interdisciplinary nature of medicine; and 5) it serves as the first entrustable professional activity (EPA) for our students.

Pub.: 10 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Informing prehospital care planning using pilot trauma registry data in Yaoundé, Cameroon

Abstract: About 54% of deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are attributable to lack of prehospital care. The single largest contributor to the disability-adjusted life years due to poor prehospital care is injury. Despite having disproportionately high injury burdens, most LMIC trauma systems have little prehospital organization. An understanding of existing prehospital care patterns in LMICs is warranted as a precursor to strengthening prehospital systems.In this retrospective pilot study, we collected demographic and injury characteristics, therapeutic itinerary, and transport data of patients that were captured by the trauma registry at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) from April 15, 2009 to October 15, 2009. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to explore relationships between care-seeking behavior, method of transport, and predictor variables.The mean age was 30.2 years (95% CI [29.7, 30.7]) and 73% were male. Therapeutic itinerary was available for 97.5% of patients (N = 2855). Nearly 18.7% of patients sought care elsewhere before CHY and 82% of such visits were at district hospitals or health clinics. Moderately (OR 1.336, p = 0.009) and severely (OR 1.605, p = 0.007) injured patients were more likely to seek care elsewhere before CHY and were less likely to be discharged home after their emergency ward visit as opposed to being admitted to the hospital for further treatment (OR 0.462, p < 0.001). Commercial vehicles provided most prehospital transport (65%), while police or ambulance transported few injured patients (7%).Possible areas for prehospital trauma care strengthening include training lay commercial vehicle drivers in trauma care and formalizing triage, referral, and communication protocols for prehospital care to optimize timely transfer and care while minimizing secondary injury to patients.

Pub.: 10 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Prehospital recognition and antibiotics for 999 patients with sepsis: protocol for a feasibility study

Abstract: Sepsis is a common condition which kills between 36,000 and 64,000 people every year in the UK. Early recognition and management of sepsis has been shown to reduce mortality and improve the health and well-being of people with sepsis. Paramedics frequently come into contact with patients with sepsis and are well placed to provide early diagnosis and treatment.We aim to determine the feasibility of undertaking a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the clinical and cost-effectiveness of paramedics obtaining blood cultures from and administering IV antibiotics to patients with sepsis, so we can make a decision about whether to proceed to a fully powered randomised controlled trial, which will answer questions regarding safety and effectiveness for patients and benefit to the National Health Service (NHS).This is an individually randomised, two-arm feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial with a 1:1 ratio. Sixty paramedics will receive training to assist them to recognise sepsis using a screening tool, obtain blood cultures, and provide IV antibiotics. If sepsis is suspected, paramedics will randomly allocate patients to intervention or usual care using their next sequential individually issued scratch card. Patients will be followed up at 90 days using linked anonymised data to capture length of hospital admission and mortality. We will also collect self-reported health-related quality of life (using SF-12) at this time. We will interview ten patients by telephone and hold a focus group with paramedics, to find out what they think about the intervention.At the end of this study, we will make a recommendation about whether a full randomised controlled trial of paramedics obtaining blood cultures and administering IV antibiotics for sepsis is warranted, and if so, we will develop a proposal for research funding in order to take the work forward.ISRCTN, ISRCTN36856873

Pub.: 12 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Factors associated with emergency services use in Taiwanese advanced cancer patients receiving palliative home care services during out-of-hours periods: a retrospective medical record study

Abstract: For patients receiving palliative home care, the need to visit the emergency department is considered to be an indicator of poor quality care. The situation can be particularly distressing when it occurs outside of normal hours of palliative home care service. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors for emergency department use during out-of-hours periods of palliative home care service among advanced cancer patients in Taiwan.This case-control study was based on a retrospective medical chart review (January 2010 to December 2012) of advanced cancer patients who were receiving palliative home care in a community hospital in south Taiwan. The use of emergency medical services by these patients was dichotomized into either normal hours (8 a.m. to midnight, Monday to Friday, excluding public holidays) of palliative home care or outside normal hours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with emergency services use during out-of-hours period of palliative home care.Results: Of the 94 patients receiving palliative home care, 65 had used emergency services at least once during the 3-year study period. Of these 65 patients, 40% used emergency services during out-of-hours of palliative home care. Patients with distressing conditions (defined as the occurrence of any two conditions of dyspnea, change of consciousness, or gastrointestinal bleeding) were significantly more likely to use emergency services during out-of-hours of palliative home care.Patients at risk of developing dyspnea, change of consciousness, or gastrointestinal bleeding should be provided with relevant information regarding these symptoms and signs.

Pub.: 12 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

A Descriptive Analysis of Care Provided by Law Enforcement Prior to EMS Arrival in the United States.

Abstract: Study Objectives Law enforcement is increasingly viewed as a key component in the out-of-hospital chain of survival, with expanded roles in cardiac arrest, narcotic overdose, and traumatic bleeding. Little is known about the nature of care provided by law enforcement prior to the arrival of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) assets. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of events reported to a national EMS database. This study was a descriptive analysis of the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public release research data set, containing EMS emergency response data from 41 states. Code E09_02 1200 specifically identifies care provided by law enforcement prior to EMS arrival. A total of 25,835,729 unique events were reported. Of events in which pre-arrival care was documented, 2.0% received prior aid by law enforcement. Patients receiving law enforcement care prior to EMS arrival were more likely to be younger (52.8 [SD=23.3] years versus 58.7 [SD=23.3] years), male (54.8% versus 46.7%), and white (80.3% versus 77.5%). Basic Life Support (BLS) EMS response was twice as likely in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement. Multiple-casualty incidents were five times more likely with prior aid by law enforcement. Compared with prior aid by other services, law enforcement pre-arrival care was more likely with motor vehicle accidents, firearm assaults, knife assaults, blunt assaults, and drug overdoses, and less likely at falls and childbirths. Cardiac arrest was significantly more common in patients receiving prior aid by law enforcement (16.5% versus 2.6%). Tourniquet application and naloxone administration were more common in the law enforcement prior aid group. Where noted, law enforcement pre-arrival care occurs in 2.0% of EMS patient encounters. The majority of cases involve cardiac arrest, motor vehicle accidents, and assaults. Better understanding of the nature of law enforcement care is required in order to identify potential barriers to care and to develop appropriate training and policy recommendations. Klassen AB , Core SB , Lohse CM , Sztajnkrycer MD . A descriptive analysis of care provided by law enforcement prior to EMS arrival in the United States.

Pub.: 14 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18