Indexed on: 24 Aug '01Published on: 24 Aug '01Published in: Pest Management Science
Attract-and-kill techniques, associating an attractant and a contact insecticide in a sticky formulation, are a new way of controlling Lepidopteran pests. Insecticide resistance may, however, limit the effectiveness and even the attractiveness of such formulations where resistance pleiotropic effects influence pheromone perception. We have tested this hypothesis on resistant codling moths Cydia pomonella (L) using a commercial formulation containing (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), the major component of the sex pheromone, as an attractant and permethrin as toxicant. We first compared the attractiveness of codlemone in a wind tunnel and the contact toxicity of pyrethroids on males of one susceptible and of three strains selected for resistance to diflubenzuron, deltamethrin and azinphos-methyl. The dose-response relationships of males of susceptible and resistant strains to codlemone did not differ significantly. The deltamethrin-selected strain was the most resistant to pyrethroids, exhibiting 138-, 25- and 18-fold resistance ratios to deltamethrin, cypermethrin and permethrin, respectively. The efficiency of the attracticide formulation, applied successively on filter paper support, glass support and wood support, was estimated by recording the mortality delay of males after natural contact with the formulation in the wind tunnel. The deltamethrin- and diflubenzuron-resistant strains were significantly less affected than the susceptible strain by contact with the attracticide on the wooden support, exhibiting 58- and 2.3-fold greater LT50 ratios, respectively. Mortality of deltamethrin-resistant moths did not exceed 40% after 48 h. The LT50 value was significantly greater on filter paper support than on the two other supports. Surprisingly, the LT50 ratio of the deltamethrin-resistant strain was markedly higher on filter paper support (1021-fold), which was more absorbent, than on the glass support (31-fold). No sublethal effects in terms of pheromone response, mating or fecundity occurred in moths surviving contact with the attracticide. Choice of insecticides in attracticide formulations will be influenced by the resistance background of the target pests. Principles of insecticide resistance management may also be applied to attract-and-kill technology by alternating with other insecticides or control methods.