Ionic-liquid-based, manual-shaking- and ultrasound-assisted, surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction for the determination of three fungicide residues in juice samples.

Research paper by Xiaochu X Chen, Xiangwei X You, Fengmao F Liu, Fan F Hou, Xu X Zhang

Indexed on: 14 Nov '14Published on: 14 Nov '14Published in: Journal of Separation Science


A novel manual-shaking- and ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction method was developed for the determination of three fungicides in juice samples. In this method, the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, instead of a volatile organic solvent was used as the extraction solvent. The surfactant, NP-10, was used as an emulsifier to enhance the dispersion of the water-immiscible ionic liquid into an aqueous phase, which accelerated the mass transfer of the analytes. Organic dispersive solvent typically required in common dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methods was not necessary. In addition, manual shaking for 15 s before ultrasound to preliminarily mix the extraction solvent and the aqueous sample could greatly shorten the time for dispersing the ionic liquid into aqueous solution by ultrasound irradiation. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including type and volume of extraction solvent, type and concentration of surfactant, extraction time, and pH, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9986 and high sensitivity with the limit of detection ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 μg/L were obtained. The average recoveries ranged from 61.4 to 86.0% for spiked juice, with relative standard deviations from 1.8 to 9.7%. The proposed method was demonstrated to be a simple, fast, and efficient method for the analysis of the target fungicides in juice samples.