Investigation of the anomalous spectroscopic features of the copper sites in chicken ceruloplasmin: comparison to human ceruloplasmin.

Research paper by T E TE Machonkin, G G Musci, H H HH Zhang, M C MC Bonaccorsi di Patti, L L Calabrese, B B Hedman, K O KO Hodgson, E I EI Solomon

Indexed on: 25 Aug '99Published on: 25 Aug '99Published in: Biochemistry


Chicken ceruloplasmin has been previously reported to display a number of key differences relative to human ceruloplasmin: a lower copper content and a lack of a type 2 copper signal by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. We have studied the copper sites of chicken ceruloplasmin in order to probe the origin of these differences, focusing on two forms of the enzyme: "resting" (as isolated by a fast, one-step procedure) and "peroxide-oxidized". From X-ray absorption, EPR, and UV/visible absorption spectroscopies, we have shown that all of the copper sites are oxidized in peroxide-oxidized chicken ceruloplasmin and that none of the type 1 copper sites display the EPR features typical for type 1 copper sites that lack an axial methionine. In the resting form, the type 2 copper center is reduced. Upon oxidation, it does not appear in the EPR spectrum at 77 K, but it can be observed by using magnetic susceptibility, EPR at approximately 8 K, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. It displays unusually fast relaxation, indicative of coupling with the adjacent type 3 copper pair of the trinuclear copper cluster. From reductive titrations, we have found that the reduction potential of the type 2 center is higher than those of the other copper sites, thus explaining why it is reduced in the resting form. These results provide new insight into the nature of the additional type 1 copper sites and the redox distribution among copper sites in the different ceruloplasmins relative to other multicopper oxidases.