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Invasive glossy buckthorn impedes growth of red oak and sugar maple under-planted in a mature hybrid poplar plantation

Research paper by Caroline Hamelin, Benoit Truax; Daniel Gagnon

Indexed on: 31 Aug '16Published on: 22 Aug '16Published in: New Forests



Abstract

Abstract Native tree seedlings (nursery produced) were planted under control and herbicide treatments in the understory of a mature hybrid poplar plantation, naturally invaded by glossy buckthorn, a major invasive exotic shrub of Eastern North America. The objectives were to (1) test the negative effect of the invasive buckthorn on seedling growth, (2) determine if this effect differed for two tree species with different shade tolerances and edaphic requirements (sugar maple, red oak), and (3) determine if the type of canopy influenced this effect (5 clones). Confounding factors were reduced in this design (canopy composition and structure, age/size of seedlings), and several factors were controlled (transplantation date, deer exclusion). Several factors were measured (canopy openness, soil nutrients, canopy biomass, understory vegetation biomass, buckthorn density and biomass). After two growing seasons, seedlings of both species had reduced diameter and height increments under buckthorn. This difference was statistically significant for diameter increment. Canopy type did not have any effect on environmental variables or seedling growth. Buckthorn reduced light availability, but had no effect on soil moisture or soil nutrient availability. Consistent with sugar maple’s ecological requirements, its diameter growth was explained (multiple regression) firstly by edaphic variables (positive effect: soil humidity and K), and secondly by buckthorn biomass (negative effect). Red oak growth was explained firstly by buckthorn biomass, and secondly by understory vegetation biomass, both negative effects. Seedlings of species with higher light requirements (red oak) may have large growth reductions under buckthorn cover and have difficulty overtopping it. These results indicate that under-planting (plantations, forests) or afforestation should occur rapidly after buckthorn removal, otherwise this introduced invasive shrub may greatly reduce survival and growth of planted trees. Restoration of red oak to areas of former abundance will likely be more difficult because of the competition from glossy buckthorn.AbstractNative tree seedlings (nursery produced) were planted under control and herbicide treatments in the understory of a mature hybrid poplar plantation, naturally invaded by glossy buckthorn, a major invasive exotic shrub of Eastern North America. The objectives were to (1) test the negative effect of the invasive buckthorn on seedling growth, (2) determine if this effect differed for two tree species with different shade tolerances and edaphic requirements (sugar maple, red oak), and (3) determine if the type of canopy influenced this effect (5 clones). Confounding factors were reduced in this design (canopy composition and structure, age/size of seedlings), and several factors were controlled (transplantation date, deer exclusion). Several factors were measured (canopy openness, soil nutrients, canopy biomass, understory vegetation biomass, buckthorn density and biomass). After two growing seasons, seedlings of both species had reduced diameter and height increments under buckthorn. This difference was statistically significant for diameter increment. Canopy type did not have any effect on environmental variables or seedling growth. Buckthorn reduced light availability, but had no effect on soil moisture or soil nutrient availability. Consistent with sugar maple’s ecological requirements, its diameter growth was explained (multiple regression) firstly by edaphic variables (positive effect: soil humidity and K), and secondly by buckthorn biomass (negative effect). Red oak growth was explained firstly by buckthorn biomass, and secondly by understory vegetation biomass, both negative effects. Seedlings of species with higher light requirements (red oak) may have large growth reductions under buckthorn cover and have difficulty overtopping it. These results indicate that under-planting (plantations, forests) or afforestation should occur rapidly after buckthorn removal, otherwise this introduced invasive shrub may greatly reduce survival and growth of planted trees. Restoration of red oak to areas of former abundance will likely be more difficult because of the competition from glossy buckthorn.