Insertion Torque of Variable-Thread Tapered Implants in the Posterior Maxilla: A Clinical Study.

Research paper by Habib L HL Abi-Aad, Fadi I FI Daher, Nadim Z NZ Baba, Giampiero G Cordioli, Zeina A K ZAK Majzoub

Indexed on: 05 Sep '18Published on: 05 Sep '18Published in: Journal of Prosthodontics


Primary stability is a key factor for successful implant osseointegration, especially in poor bone quality and early/immediate loading. In the immediate loading protocol, insertion torque values (ITVs) have been suggested to be the most valid prognostic factor for osseointegration of maxillary implants. The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate ITVs achieved by a variable-thread tapered implant in the posterior maxilla; and (2) assess the impact of bone quality, implant dimensions, bicortical anchorage, and implant location on ITVs. Twenty-six adult, systemically healthy patients received 173 variable-thread tapered implants in maxillary premolar and molar healed edentulous sites with a minimum subsinus height of 8 mm. Implant sites were prepared using the bone-quality adjusted drilling sequence according to manufacturer's recommendations. Bone quality was recorded subjectively during drilling based on Misch criteria (D1-D4), and ITVs were measured with a manual torque wrench. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed at the 0.05 significance level. First and second molar sites accounted for 46.8% of all implants. D4 bone was encountered in 61.3% of the sites. Most of the implants were 4.3 mm in diameter (59.5%), and lengths of 11.5 and 13 mm were most commonly used (75.2%). Approximately half of the implants were associated with apical cortical anchorage (51.4%). The overall mean ITV was 44.5 ± 23.0 Ncm, with 65.5 ± 15.6 Ncm, 55.5 ± 19.6 Ncm, and 36.6 ± 21.7 Ncm for D2, D3, and D4 bone, respectively. Bone quality and implant location significantly affected ITVs, while implant dimensions and apical cortical anchorage did not. ITVs of variable-thread implants were significantly influenced by variations in bone quality and implant position in the posterior maxilla. Despite the influence of bone quality on primary stability, the mean ITVs attained with variable-thread tapered implants in poor bone quality were within the recommended range for immediate loading. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.