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Inpatient diagnoses of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in the United States: Demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

Research paper by Arash A Ghaffari-Rafi, Rana R Mehdizadeh, Shadeh S Ghaffari-Rafi, Jose J Leon-Rojas

Indexed on: 09 Oct '20Published on: 09 Oct '20Published in: Journal of the Neurological Sciences



Abstract

Epidemiology provides an avenue for identifying disease pathogenesis, hence determining national incidence, along with socioeconomic and demographic variables involved in iNPH, can provide direction in elucidating the etiology and addressing healthcare inequalities. To investigate incidence (per 100,000) of iNPH diagnoses applied to the inpatient population, with respect to sex, age, income, residence, and race/ethnicity, we queried the largest American administrative dataset (2008-2016), the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS), which surveys 20% of United States (US) discharges. Annual national inpatient incidence (with 25th and 75th quartiles) for iNPH diagnoses was 2.86 (2.72, 2.93). Males had an inpatient incidence of 3.27 (3.11, 3.39), higher (p = 0.008) than female at 2.45 (2.41, 2.47). Amongst age groups inpatient incidence varied (p = 0.000004) and was largest amongst the 85+ group at 18.81 (16.40, 19.95). Individuals with middle/high income had an inpatient incidence of 2.96 (2.77, 3.06), higher (p = 0.008) than the 2.37 (2.24, 2.53) of low-income patients. Depending on whether patients lived in urban, suburban, or rural communities, inpatient incidence diverged (p = 0.01) as follows, respectively: 2.65; 2.66; 3.036. Amongst race/ethnicity (p = 0.000003), inpatient incidence for Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans were as follows, respectively: 3.88 (3.69, 3.93), 1.065 (1.015, 1.14); 0.82 (0.76, 0.85); 0.43 (0.33, 0.52); 0.027 (0.026, 0.12). In the US, inpatient incidence for iNPH diagnoses exhibited disparities between socioeconomic and demographic strata, emphasizing a healthcare inequality. Disproportionately, diagnoses were applied most to patients who were White, male, 65 and older, middle/high income, and living in rural communities. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.