Indexed on: 24 Feb '19Published on: 24 Feb '19Published in: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including natural killer (NK) cells, ILC1s, ILC2s, ILC3s, and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, comprise the first line of innate immune defense against pathogens and tumors. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has demonstrated immunological memory in ILC subsets: for example, NK cells recall haptens, viruses, and cytokines; ILC1s recall haptens; and ILC2s recall cytokines. Although the development and functions of ILCs mirror those of T-cell subsets, ILC and T-cell memory exhibit both common characteristics and specific properties. Encouragingly, ILC memory has been found to confer benefits in long-term tumor control and vaccination, providing insight for novel memory ILC-based tumor immunotherapy and vaccine-development strategies. In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting ILC memory and present a comprehensive framework of the ILC memory system.